The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 1993, updated 1996)

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Consonants (Pulmonic)

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal  Velar  Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ   ʔ  
Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
Trill ʙ r ʀ
Tap or Flap ɾ ɽ
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ
Approximant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
Lateral approximant l ɭ ʎ ʟ

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.

Consonants (Non-Pulmonic)

Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives
ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial ' Examples:
ǀ Dental ɗ Dental/alveolar p' Bilabal
ǃ (Post)alveolar ʄ Palatal t' Dental/alveolar
ǂ Palatoalveolar ɠ Velar k' Velar
ǁ Alveolar lateral ʛ Uvular s' Alveolar fricative


Vowel Quadrilateral
Front Central Back Close Close-mid Open-mid Open
i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u
ɪ ʏ ʊ
e ø ɘ ɵ ɤ o
ɛ œ ɜ ɞ ʌ ɔ
æ ɐ
a ɶ ɑ ɒ

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

Other Symbols

ʍ Voiceless labial-velar fricative ɕ ʑ Alveolo-palatal fricatives
w Voiced labial-velar approximant ɺ Alveolar lateral flap
ɥ Voiced labial-palatal approximant ɧ Simultaneous ʃ and x
ʜ Voiceless epiglottal fricative k͡p

Affricates and double articulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary. Note: Unicode does not support tie bars underneath.

ʢ Voiced epiglottal fricative
ʡ Epiglottal plosive


ˈ Primary stress
ˌ Secondary stress
ː Long
ˑ Half-long
 ̆ Extra short ĕ
| Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
. Syllable break ɹi.ækt
Linking (absence of a break)


Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. ŋ̊

 ̥ Voiceless  ̤ Breathy voiced  ̪ Dental
 ̬ Voiced  ̰ Creaky voiced  ̺ Apical
ʰ Aspirated  ̼ Linguolabial  ̻ Laminal
 ̹ More rounded ɔ̹ ʷ Labalized  ̃ Nasalized
 ̜ Less rounded ɔ̜ ʲ Palatalized Nasal release dⁿ
 ̟ Advanced ˠ Velarized ˡ Lateral release
 ̠ Retracted ˤ Pharyngealized  ̚ No audible release
 ̈ Centralized ë ~ Velarized or pharyngealized ɫ
 ̽ Mid-centralized  ̝ Raised (ɹ̝ = voiced alveolar fricative)
 ̩ Syllabic  ̞ Lowered (β̞ = voiced bilabial approximant)
 ̯ Non-syllabic  ̘ Advanced Tongue Root
˞ Rhoticity ə˞  ̙ Retracted Tongue Root

Tones and Word Accents

Level Contour
or ˥ Extra high ě Rising
é ˦ High ê Falling
ē ˧ Mid


è ˨ Low
ȅ ˩ Extra low
Downstep Global rise
Upstep Global fall